- Core Ideas
- Core Ideas – Introductory Material
- Epicurean Canonics – The Test of Truth
- Epicurean Physics – On The Nature of the Universe
- Epicurean Ethics – How Men Should Live
- The Goal of Life – The Full Cup / Fullness of Pleasure Model
- Virtue As Instrumental
- Against Supernaturalist Religion
- Against Stoicism
- Against Skepticism
- Against Platonic and Aristotelian Idealism
- Special Topics
- Texts – Introduction
- Norman DeWitt’s “Epicurus And His Philosophy”
- Diogenes Laertius: The Life of Epicurus
- 12 Elementals of Nature
- The Doctrines and Sayings of Epicurus
- Vatican Library List
- The Wise Man Sayings
- Letter to Herodotus
- Letter to Pythocles
- Letter to Menoeceus
- Diogenes of Oinoanda: The Inscription
- Later Writers
- Later Writers – Introduction
- Cicero: Torquatus’ Defense of Epicurus from “On Ends”
- Seneca: References to Epicurus
- Lucian: Hermotimus
- Lucian: Alexander the Oracle-Monger
- Cosma Raimondi
- Gassendi’s Epicurus
- Gassendi’s Epicurus – Part 1 – Life of Epicurus
- Gassendi’s Epicurus – Part 2A – Of Philosophy in General
- Gassendi’s Epicurus – Part 2B – The First Part of Philosophy, Canonick, of the Criteries
- Gassendi’s Epicurus – Part 2C – The Second Part of Philosophy, Physick, or, of Nature
- Gassendi’s Epicurus – Part 2D – The Third Part of Philosophy, Ethick, or Morals
- Thomas Jefferson: Pro Epicurus / Contra Plato
- Other Resources
- Elemental Epicureanism
- Thus Purred Catius’ Cat
- Catius’ Cat And The Forty Mice
- Frances Wright’s “A Few Days In Athens”
- Lion of Epicurus – Lucian and His Epicurean Passages
- The Tripod of Truth
- The Doctrines of Epicurus – Annotated
- An Introduction To The Nature of Things
- Ante Oculos – Epicurus and The Evidence-Based Life
- A Life Worthy of the Gods – The Life And Work of Epicurus
- The Same Span of Time – The Major Works of Thomas Cooper, M.D.
- On Three Legs We Stand – Epicurus and the Dialogues of Jackson Barwis
- News From The World of Epicurus
- Audio Library
- Honor Roll of Epicureans
- Epicurean Art in the Ancient World
- About The Admin
Happy Twentieth of September! For today’s Twentieth, here is a passage from the letter of Cosma Raimondi to remind us that the pursuit of pleasure is not an “addiction” or a “poison” (as referenced in a recent editorial at theguardian.com) but the motivating force of all that we do in life: “The passions and activities of mankind themselves make plain …
The Wikipedia entry for the Battle of Philippi includes this (as of 09/01/17): Plutarch also reports the last words of Brutus, quoted by a Greek tragedy “O wretched Virtue, thou wert but a name, and yet I worshipped thee as real indeed; but now, it seems, thou were but fortune’s slave.” I have cited that elsewhere on this site but …
If you are a new visitor, please be sure to check out our welcome videos above, especially our latest introductory summary: Foundations of Epicurean Philosophy. Be sure also to review our presentation of Epicurus’ own summary of his philosophy, his “Letter to Herodotus.” Also, we have To The Hearts In Darkness: a Brief Introduction to the Philosophy of Epicurus. For a summary at an elemental level, see our two short poems “Thus Purred Catius Cat” and “Catius Cat And the Forty Mice.” These videos are organized for easy reference on our Youtube Video Page. We also have a set of answers to Frequently Asked Questions.
The purpose of this website is to promote the study of the philosophy of Epicurus.
Epicurus taught that it is essential to our happiness to pursue the study of Nature. An understanding of basic principles of Nature leads us to conclude that the universe is eternal, that we have free will, that we are not predestined by “Fate,” that we have no need to fear punishment or reward from capricious gods either now or after death, that we can find all the truth that is necessary for us to find, that happiness is possible, and that the requirements of happy living are few and simple. And these truths are not matters of speculation or reserved for some future existence – these are the ground rules of the only life available to us – the one we live now.
Armed with confidence in these conclusions, we are freed from the unnecessary fears and anxieties peddled by false priests and false philosophers. Beguiled no longer by “virtue” or “abstract reason” or “the will of the gods,” we are free to follow the guide Nature provided to us, Divine Pleasure. And our confidence that these conclusions are correct is not a matter of faith – in Epicurus or anything or anyone else. Our confidence is grounded in the proper use of the faculties Nature herself gave to us, by use of the method of true reason taught by Epicurus.
These are the matters that this web site will explore. This exploration is directed to normal, everyday people who wish to live happily – it is not directed to academics or historians. Academics and historians are welcome as well, but the philosophy of Epicurus was developed for ordinary people, and for far too long it has been hidden away from those who need it most. Establishment figures can be expected to continue to reject Epicurus just as they have for thousands of years. Epicurus’ philosophy gives no quarter to imposition or manipulation, and gives no route to fame or riches or power over others. The path of Epicureanism will always be the one to which Nature calls, but only those who are willing to listen to her, rather than to the crowd, will follow.
For a summary of the tenets of Epicurean philosophy prepared by Epicurus himself, consult the three letters he wrote for that purpose: (1) To Herodotus on General Principles of Nature, (2) To Pythocles on Astronomy, and (3) To Menoeceus on Ethics.
The Letter to Herodotus
The Letter to Pythocles
The Letter to Menoeceus
Note: The above “Elemental Edition” audio versions are not literal translations, but have been compiled and simplified from a variety of sources. For the full original texts of these letters with critical commentary, consult the various resources included in the NewEpicurean library.
The Elementary Principles of Nature as set forth by Epicurus and summarized in English by Norman Dewitt:
1. Matter is uncreatable.
1. Matter is uncreatable.
2. Matter is indestructible.
3. The universe consists of solid bodies and void.
4. Solid bodies are either compounds or simple.
5. The multitude of atoms is infinite.
6. The void is infinite in extent.
7. The atoms are always in motion.
8. The speed of atomic motion is uniform.
9. Motion is linear in space, vibratory in compounds.
10. Atoms are capable of swerving slightly at any point in space or time.
11. Atoms are characterized by three qualities: weight, shape and size.
12. The number of the different shapes is not infinite, merely innumerable.
The Principal Doctrines of Epicurus as translated by Cyril Bailey:
1. The blessed and immortal nature knows no trouble itself nor causes trouble to any other, so that it is never constrained by anger or favour. For all such things exist only in the weak.
1. The blessed and immortal nature knows no trouble itself nor causes trouble to any other, so that it is never constrained by anger or favour. For all such things exist only in the weak.
2. Death is nothing to us, for that which is dissolved is without sensation; and that which lacks sensation is nothing to us.
3. The limit of quantity in pleasures is the removal of all that is painful. Wherever pleasure is present, as long as it is there, there is neither pain of body nor of mind, nor of both at once.
4. Pain does not last continuously in the flesh, but the acutest pain is there for a very short time, and even that which just exceeds the pleasure in the flesh does not continue for many days at once. But chronic illnesses permit a predominance of pleasure over pain in the flesh.
5. It is not possible to live pleasantly without living prudently and honorably and justly, [nor again to live a life of prudence, honor, and Justice] without living pleasantly. And the man who does not possess the pleasant life, is not living prudently and honorably and justly, [and the man who does not possess the virtuous life], cannot possibly live pleasantly.
6. To secure protection from men anything is a natural good by which you may be able to attain this end.
7. Some men wished to become famous and conspicuous, thinking that they would thus win for themselves safety from other men. Wherefore if the life of such men is safe, they have obtained the good which nature craves; but if it is not safe, they do not possess that for which they strove at first by the instinct of nature.
8. No pleasure is a bad thing in itself: but the means which produce some pleasures bring with them disturbances many times greater than the pleasures.
9. If every pleasure could be intensified so that it lasted and influenced the whole organism or the most essential parts of our nature, pleasures would never differ from one another.
10. If the things that produce the pleasures of profligates could dispel the fears of the mind about the phenomena of the sky and death and its pains, and also teach the limits of desires (and of pains), we should never have cause to blame them: for they would be filling themselves full with pleasures from every source and never have pain of body or mind, which is the evil of life.
11. If we were not troubled by our suspicions of the phenomena of the sky and about death, fearing that it concerns us, and also by our failure to grasp the limits of pains and desires, we should have no need of natural science.
12. A man cannot dispel his fear about the most important matters if he does not know what is the nature of the universe but suspects the truth of some mythical story. So that without natural science it is not possible to attain our pleasures unalloyed.
13. There is no profit in securing protection in relation to men, if things above and things beneath the earth and indeed all in the boundless universe remain matters of suspicion.
14. The most unalloyed source of protection from men, which is secured to some extent by a certain force of expulsion, is in fact the immunity which results from a quiet life and the retirement from the world.
15. The wealth demanded by nature is both limited and easily procured; that demanded by idle imaginings stretches on to infinity.
16. In but few things chance hinders a wise man, but the greatest and most important matters reason has ordained and throughout the whole period of life does and will ordain.
17. The just man is most free from trouble, the unjust most full of trouble.
18. The pleasure in the flesh is not increased, when once the pain due to want is removed, but is only varied: and the limit as regards pleasure in the mind is begotten by the reasoned understanding of these very pleasures and of the emotions akin to them, which used to cause the greatest fear to the mind.
19. Infinite time contains no greater pleasure than limited time, if one measures by reason the limits of pleasure.
20. The flesh perceives the limits of pleasure as unlimited, and unlimited time is required to supply it. But the mind, having attained a reasoned understanding of the ultimate good of the flesh and its limits and having dissipated the fears concerning the time to come, supplies us with the complete life, and we have no further need of infinite time: but neither does the mind shun pleasure, nor, when circumstances begin to bring about the departure from life, does it approach its end as though it fell short in any way of the best life.
21. He who has learned the limits of life knows that that which removes the pain due to want and makes the whole of life complete is easy to obtain, so that there is no need of actions which involve competition.
22. We must consider both the real purpose and all the evidence of direct perception, to which we always refer the conclusions of opinion; otherwise, all will be full of doubt and confusion.
23. If you fight against all sensations, you will have no standard by which to judge even those of them which you say are false.
24. If you reject any single sensation and fail to distinguish between the conclusion of opinion as to the appearance awaiting confirmation and that which is actually given by the sensation or feeling, or each intuitive apprehension of the mind, you will confound all other sensations as well with the same groundless opinion, so that you will reject every standard of judgment. And if among the mental images created by your opinion you affirm both that which awaits confirmation and that which does not, you will not escape error, since you will have preserved the whole cause of doubt in every judgment between what is right and what is wrong.
25. If on each occasion, instead of referring your actions to the end of nature, you turn to some other nearer standard when you are making a choice or an avoidance, your actions will not be consistent with your principles.
26. Of desires, all that do not lead to a sense of pain, if they are not satisfied, are not necessary, but involve a craving which is easily dispelled, when the object is hard to procure or they seem likely to produce harm.
27. Of all the things which wisdom acquires to produce the blessedness of the complete life, far the greatest is the possession of friendship.
28. The same conviction which has given us confidence that there is nothing terrible that lasts forever or even for long, has also seen the protection of friendship most fully completed in the limited evils of this life.
29. Among desires some are natural (and necessary, some natural) but not necessary, and others neither natural nor necessary, but due to idle imagination.
30. Wherever in the case of desires which are physical, but do not lead to a sense of pain, if they are not fulfilled, the effort is intense, such pleasures are due to idle imagination, and it is not owing to their own nature that they fail to be dispelled, but owing to the empty imaginings of the man.
31. The justice which arises from nature is a pledge of mutual advantage to restrain men from harming one another and save them from being harmed.
32. For all living things which have not been able to make compacts not to harm one another or be harmed, nothing ever is either just or unjust; and likewise too for all tribes of men which have been unable or unwilling to make compacts not to harm or be harmed.
33. Justice never is anything in itself, but in the dealings of men with one another in any place whatever and at any time it is a kind of compact not to harm or be harmed.
34. Injustice is not an evil in itself, but only in consequence of the fear which attaches to the apprehension of being unable to escape those appointed to punish such actions.
35. It is not possible for one who acts in secret contravention of the terms of the compact not to harm or be harmed, to be confident that he will escape detection, even if at present he escapes a thousand times. For up to the time of death it cannot be certain that he will indeed escape.
36. In its general aspect justice is the same for all, for it is a kind of mutual advantage in the dealings of men with one another: but with reference to the individual peculiarities of a country or any other circumstances the same thing does not turn out to be just for all.
37. Among actions which are sanctioned as just by law, that which is proved on examination to be of advantage in the requirements of men’s dealings with one another, has the guarantee of justice, whether it is the same for all or not. But if a man makes a law and it does not turn out to lead to advantage in men’s dealings with each other, then it no longer has the essential nature of justice. And even if the advantage in the matter of justice shifts from one side to the other, but for a while accords with the general concept, it is nonetheless just for that period in the eyes of those who do not confound themselves with empty sounds but look to the actual facts.
38. Where, provided the circumstances have not been altered, actions which were considered just, have been shown not to accord with the general concept in actual practice, then they are not just. But where, when circumstances have changed, the same actions which were sanctioned as just no longer lead to advantage, there they were just at the time when they were of advantage for the dealings of fellow-citizens with one another, but subsequently they are no longer just, when no longer of advantage.
39. The man who has best ordered the element of disquiet arising from external circumstances has made those things that he could akin to himself and the rest at least not alien; but with all to which he could not do even this, he has refrained from mixing, and has expelled from his life all which it was of advantage to treat thus.
40. As many as possess the power to procure complete immunity from their neighbours, these also live most pleasantly with one another, since they have the most certain pledge of security, and after they have enjoyed the fullest intimacy, they do not lament the previous departure of a dead friend, as though he were to be pitied.
For alternative translations and annotations, click here.
Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, wrote in his private correspondence “I too am an Epicurean.” Without an understanding of Epicurus, you will never truly follow the roots of Jefferson’s thinking, or know why he wrote statements such as these:
- As you say of yourself, I too am an Epicurean. I consider the genuine (not the imputed) doctrines of Epicurus as containing everything rational in moral philosophy which Greece and Rome have left us. Epictetus indeed, has given us what was good of the stoics; all beyond, of their dogmas, being hypocrisy and grimace. Their great crime was in their calumnies of Epicurus and misrepresentations of his doctrines; in which we lament to see the candid character of Cicero engaging as an accomplice. Diffuse, vapid, rhetorical, but enchanting. His prototype Plato, eloquent as himself, dealing out mysticisms incomprehensible to the human mind, has been deified by certain sects usurping the name of Christians; because, in his foggy conceptions, they found a basis of impenetrable darkness whereon to rear fabrications as delirious, of their own invention. – Thomas Jefferson to William Short, 1819
- “I am satisfied, and sufficiently occupied with the things which are, without tormenting or troubling myself about those which may indeed be, but of which I have no evidence.” – Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 1820
- …[T]o give rest to my mind, I was obliged to recur ultimately to my habitual anodyne: “I feel: therefore I exist.” I feel bodies which are not myself: there are other existencies then. I call them matter. I feel them changing place. This gives me motion. Where there is an absence of matter, I call it void, or nothing, or immaterial space. On the basis of sensation, of matter and motion, we may erect the fabric of all the certainties we can have or need. … To talk of immaterial existences is to talk of nothings. To say that the human soul, angels, god, are immaterial, is to say they are nothings, or that there is no god, no angels, no soul. I cannot reason otherwise. – Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Adams, August 15, 1820
- The doctrines which flowed from the lips of Jesus himself are within the comprehension of a child; but thousands of volumes have not yet explained the Platonisms engrafted on them; and for this obvious reason, that nonsense can never be explained. – Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Adams, July 5, 1814
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Does “The true Epicurean lives inside his walls with a few close friends and let the world outside the garden go to hell?”
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